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As about 25% of the ingested or injected iodine accumulates in the thyroid within 24 h as part of the process of making thyroid hormone, it is possible to detect trace amounts of radioactive iodine by use of nuclear detectors, and to make images of the thyroid. These are not anatomic images but are images reflecting the spatial distribution of metabolic activity. The majority of contemporary nuclear medicine studies are for brain blood flow, heart flow with and without induced stress by exercise or a pharmacologic agent, bone tumor scanning, thyroid scanning, and cancer detection.

T2 is the characteristic time for decay of coherent magnetization in the transverse plane: the transverse magnetization decays exponentially with time constant T2 to its equilibrium value, Mxy ϭ 0. For proton MRI, both relaxation times are determined by interaction of water with macromolecules in tissues. , T1 and T2) determined by the local tissue biophysics at each spatial position. Three-dimensional information is gleaned by varying gradients in the x, y, z directions. The Fourier transform of this complex signal gives directly the image projections of intensities of nuclear magnetization.

S. Pentlow, Radioation dose in CT, RadioGraphics, 12: 1225–1243, 1992. AAPM Tutorial. 37. P. L. McGhee and S. Humphreys, Radiation dose associated with spiral computed tomography, Can. Assoc. Radiol. J. 45: 124– 129, 1994. 38. G. Wang and M. W. Vannier, Longitudinal resolution in volumetric x-ray CT—Analytical comparison between conventional and helical CT, Med. , 21: 429–433, 1994. 39. W. A. Kalender, A. Polacin, and C. Su¨ss, A comparison of conventional and spiral CT: An experimental study on detection of spherical lesions, J.

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34.Medical Imaging by John G. Webster (Editor)

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