By Aviezer Tucker
The fifty entries during this Companion disguise the most matters within the philosophies of historiography and background, together with average background and the practices of historians.
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Additional resources for A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography
However, in the first few 35 I: LAVAS AND MAGMAS centuries of the millennium the situation was reversed: early Europe was, in a manner of speaking, a colony of Islam, an empire that not only had a more advanced monetary system, but also had invented many of the instruments of c redit (from bills of exchange to promissory notes and checks). As Braudel says, " If Europe finally perfected its money, it was because it had to overthrow the domination of the Muslim world. " 28 Venice, Florence, Genoa, and other large medieval cities started coining their own copper, silver, and gold money, and the volume of European trade began to rise.
Their economies were diversified and included a wide range of artisans and service workers .... The large cities of 1330 owed their size to the multiplicity of their functions.... The same point can be made about the few urban giants of the Middle Ages. 18 This multiplicity of urban centers, internally differentiated by size and complexity, can be compared to other populations of towns that emerged elsewhere. Urbanization explosions had occurred in Islam and China at 33 I: LAVAS A ND MAGMAS least two centuries before those in Europe.
E u ropea n m e rc h a n ts got a ro u n d t h i s p ro h i biti o n t h rough t h e u se of t h e " b i l l of exc h a n ge , " o rigi n a l ly a m e a n s of l o n g-d i sta n ce paym e n t ( i n he rited fro m I s l a m) ; as it ci rcu l ated from fa i r to fa i r its rate of ret u r n accrued u s u ri o u sly. (T h i s d i s gu ised fo rm of u s u ry was tole rate d by c h u rc h h i e ra rc h ies d u e to t h e m a ny risks t h e c i rc u l ati o n of b i l l s of exc h a nge i n vo lved .
A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography by Aviezer Tucker