By Anthony Weston
A Rulebook for Arguments is a succinct creation to the paintings of writing and assessing arguments, prepared round particular ideas, each one illustrated and defined soundly yet in short. This commonly well known primer - translated into 8 languages - continues to be the 1st selection in all disciplines for writers who search effortless suggestions approximately tips to check arguments and the way to cogently build them.
The fourth variation bargains a remodeled and extra tightly targeted method of prolonged arguments, a brand new bankruptcy on oral arguments, and up-to-date examples and themes all through.
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Thinking of the figures as better but not unique ways to achieve certain discourse functions also solves the considerable definitional problems they have always posed. It explains why there has never been a satisfactory definition of figurative language that rigorously separates it from an unfigured domain of usage. There never can be such a definition. The minority view that Quintilian set aside was right. Furthermore, it is not really necessary to reconcile the various definitions of the figures that have been offered because they cannot disagree.
If, for example, the expression "Richard has a lion's heart" can be replaced by the presumably unremarkable "Richard has courage," then the former is figured, and if the latter cannot be replaced by anything simpler, it is not. It does not matter that the word "courage" in English is a metaphoric coinage from the Latin for heart [cor]. What counts in these judgments are the choices available in a synchronic slice of language. Fontanier's definition of the figures as departures from The Figures as Epitomes 17 a "simple" choice works best for the tropes, but it can also be extended to the other categories.
This one example could be the subject of extensive analysis, but, briefly, the reversal in relative position of the two keywords, "protects" and "shows," expresses succinctly the argument that the ad is making about cellophane. The new material has two interchangeable and simultaneous properties and functions; it is both transparent and nonporous, making a food product both visible and yet safe from contamination at the same time. Such a verbal figure may be, and in fact often is, used along with an expanded restatement of the argument, providing reinforcing details for the central claim.
A Rulebook for Arguments by Anthony Weston