By Y. C. Fung (auth.), Alan M. Nahum, John W. Melvin (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1475722648

ISBN-13: 9781475722642

ISBN-10: 1475722664

ISBN-13: 9781475722666

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Therefore piezoelectric transducers must be calibrated using a transient or time variant (dynamic) physical input. A common type of calibration is drop calibration. The transducer to be calibrated, an accelerometer, for instance, is subjected to a transient pulse of acceleration, or deceleration, and its output is compared to that of a known reference accelerometer that experienced the same acceleration pulse. A drop calibration fixture (Fig. 15) consists of a reference accelerometer mounted upon a pedestal that can accommodate other transducers that are to be calibrated, and a reference load cell within the pedestal.

This procedure was designed to remove angular acceleration effects from the tangential accelerations and to remove centripetal effects from the radial accelerations. The rate gyroscopes were used to obtain planar angular velocity and integration of angular velocity produced angular displacement, or orientation. Clarke 16 used orthogonal biaxial pairs of linear accelerometers fixed in frontal and occipital mounts to investigate linear and angular accelerations of the human head in volunteer restraint system testing, which included air bags.

Each method uses AID converters to perform the sampling. Smaller systems may use only one converter for several channels and sequentially multiplex the signals to be sampled. This requires the use of sample and hold amplifiers so that sampling of each channel is simultaneous. Larger, more expensive systems may dedicate a converter for each channel. The AID converters themselves are available in a variety of classes, using a variety of conversion methods. Examples include parallel or flash conversion, dual slope or integrating, successive approximation, and tracking.

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Accidental Injury: Biomechanics and Prevention by Y. C. Fung (auth.), Alan M. Nahum, John W. Melvin (eds.)

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