By Marvin V. Zelkowitz
This can be quantity seventy seven of Advances in desktops. considering 1960, annual volumes are produced containing chapters through a few of the major specialists within the box of desktops at the present time. for fifty years those volumes supply rules and advancements which are altering our society. This quantity offers 8 diverse themes masking many alternative elements of computing device technology. quite a lot of topics are coated from insights into the several methods members can engage with digital units to how universal legislations is adapting to and impacting on the web.
Read or Download Advances in Computers, Vol. 77 PDF
Similar computers books
Данный курс предназначен для подготовки слушателей к использованию LDAP в качестве сервера идентификации. В курсе рассматриваются вопросы настройки, установки, структурирования и конфигурирования сервера разрешения имен с использованием сервиса LDAP сервера sunlight ONE (Open community setting) в операционной системе Solaris nine.
- STACS 88: 5th Annual Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science Bordeaux, France, February 11–13, 1988 Proceedings
- Computers and Control in Clinical Medicine
- Service Availability: 4th International Service Availability Symposium, ISAS 2007, Durham, NH, USA, May 21-22, 2007. Proceedings
Additional info for Advances in Computers, Vol. 77
Also note that the overall error reaches a minimum at the saved quality of 85. There are some variations in the difference images within and outside of the tampered region which could possibly confound a forensic analysis. These fluctuations are due to the underlying image content. , grass). To compensate for these differences, we consider a spatially averaged and normalized difference measure. The difference image is first averaged across a b Â b pixel region: dðx; y; qÞ ¼ 3 À 1 bX À1 Â À Á À ÁÃ2 1X 1 bX f x þ bx ; y þ by ; i À fq x þ bx ; y þ by ; i ; ð72Þ 2 3 i¼1 b b ¼0 b ¼0 x y and then normalized so that the averaged difference at each location (x, y) is scaled into the range [0, 1]: dðx; y; qÞ ¼ dðx; y; qÞ À minq ½dðx; y; qÞ : maxq ½dðx; y; qÞ À minq ½dðx; y; qÞ ð73Þ Although the JPEG ghosts are often visually highly salient, it is still useful to quantify if a specified region is statistically distinct from the rest of the image.
58 2. Advances in Desktop Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Cathode Ray Tube Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Plasma Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays . . . . . . . . . . 59 ADVANCES IN COMPUTERS, VOL. 1016/S0065-2458(09)01202-9 57 Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
No quantization), the difference between c1 and c2 will be minimal when q2 ¼ q1 . It is obvious that the difference between c1 and c2 increases for quantization value q2 > q1 since the coefficients become increasingly more sparse as q2 increases. For values of q2 < q1 , the difference between c1 and c2 also increases because although the second quantization does not affect the granularity of the coefficients, it does cause a shift in their values. Shown in Fig. 17A, for example, is the sum of squared differences between c1 and c2 as a function of the second quantization q2 , where q1 ¼ 17, and where the coefficients c1 are drawn from a normal zero-mean distribution.
Advances in Computers, Vol. 77 by Marvin V. Zelkowitz