By Marvin V. Zelkowitz

ISBN-10: 0123748127

ISBN-13: 9780123748126

This can be quantity seventy seven of Advances in desktops. considering 1960, annual volumes are produced containing chapters through a few of the major specialists within the box of desktops at the present time. for fifty years those volumes supply rules and advancements which are altering our society. This quantity offers 8 diverse themes masking many alternative elements of computing device technology. quite a lot of topics are coated from insights into the several methods members can engage with digital units to how universal legislations is adapting to and impacting on the web.

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Also note that the overall error reaches a minimum at the saved quality of 85. There are some variations in the difference images within and outside of the tampered region which could possibly confound a forensic analysis. These fluctuations are due to the underlying image content. , grass). To compensate for these differences, we consider a spatially averaged and normalized difference measure. The difference image is first averaged across a b  b pixel region: dðx; y; qÞ ¼ 3 À 1 bX À1  À Á À ÁÃ2 1X 1 bX f x þ bx ; y þ by ; i À fq x þ bx ; y þ by ; i ; ð72Þ 2 3 i¼1 b b ¼0 b ¼0 x y and then normalized so that the averaged difference at each location (x, y) is scaled into the range [0, 1]: dðx; y; qÞ ¼ dðx; y; qÞ À minq ½dðx; y; qފ : maxq ½dðx; y; qފ À minq ½dðx; y; qފ ð73Þ Although the JPEG ghosts are often visually highly salient, it is still useful to quantify if a specified region is statistically distinct from the rest of the image.

58 2. Advances in Desktop Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Cathode Ray Tube Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Plasma Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays . . . . . . . . . . 59 ADVANCES IN COMPUTERS, VOL. 1016/S0065-2458(09)01202-9 57 Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

No quantization), the difference between c1 and c2 will be minimal when q2 ¼ q1 . It is obvious that the difference between c1 and c2 increases for quantization value q2 > q1 since the coefficients become increasingly more sparse as q2 increases. For values of q2 < q1 , the difference between c1 and c2 also increases because although the second quantization does not affect the granularity of the coefficients, it does cause a shift in their values. Shown in Fig. 17A, for example, is the sum of squared differences between c1 and c2 as a function of the second quantization q2 , where q1 ¼ 17, and where the coefficients c1 are drawn from a normal zero-mean distribution.

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Advances in Computers, Vol. 77 by Marvin V. Zelkowitz


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