By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Phonetics
In the case of /n/, the nasal cavity is open to let the air pass through it. [k] is a voiceless velar stop. With the tongue tip resting against the lower teeth, the back of the tongue makes contact with the soft palate. [g] is its voiced counterpart. Its articulation is the same as [k], but with vibration of the vocal cords. The corresponding velar nasal [ŋ] is usually voiced as well. Some languages, including Persian, have a glottal occlusive [ʔ] too. The glottal stop can be produced in either of the two ways: (a) by the sudden opening of the glottis under pressure from the air below, or (b) by the abrupt closure of the glottis to block the airstream.
Take the following examples: EXAMPLE PRONUNCIATION MISPRONUNCIATION out /aʊt/ /ʔaʊt/ tree /tri:/ /teri:/ dress /dres/ /deres/ street /stri:t/ /ʔesteri:t/ sky /skaɪ/ /ʔeskaɪ/ 6. RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION Why should anyone want to learn the speech sounds for a British accent that is spoken by less than 3% of the population of that country? And, Britain itself provides only a minority of the English speaking peoples of this world. The reason is mainly to do with a legacy of history. Throughout the nineteenth century and throughout the early part of the twentieth century, Received Pronunciation (RP) was very much the language of the ruling and educated classes.
The vocal cords are kept far apart, and the nasal cavity is closed by the velum. Then the trapped air is suddenly released. [b] is the voiced counterpart of [p]. The only difference is that the vocal cords CHAPTER THREE 33 are close to each other and vibrate during the articulation of [b]. In the case of /m/, the nasal cavity is open. /b/ and /p/ /t/ and /d/ /k/ and /g/ [t] is a voiceless dental or alveolar stop. The tongue makes contact with the front teeth or with the alveolar ridge directly above them.
An Introduction to Phonetics by Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan