By Dimitris N. Chorafas
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Extra resources for Modelling the Survival of Financial and Industrial Enterprises: Advantages, Challenges and Problems with the Internal-Ratings Base (IRB)
Some credit institutions are now moving to align their rating to the 20 positions between AAA and D. We will return to this issue in Chapter 4. 6 Natural death and oblivion of models, products, factories, companies and people There were in past centuries thinkers who approached philosophy and science precisely in the way the most dynamic members of the scientific community look at them today – but they were a rare species. Apart the examples I have mentioned in the preceding sections, in the 17th century the philosopher Baruch Spinosa (1632–77) saw in nature the reason of his own existence (causa sua), a process interactive with itself whose presence did not require external causes.
Take aggregate derivatives exposure as an example. 4, the component parts consist of counterparty-to-counterparty evaluation of exposure, on-balance sheet and off-balance sheet (OBS); instrument-by-instrument analysis, including the effects of volatility and liquidity; and market-by-market risk exposure, accounting for both general and local conditions. Multimarket exposure necessarily involves currency exchange and interest rate risks; and it is wise to study the sensitivities, do simulations, and employ high frequency financial data (HFFD).
1 empowers communication, enabling analytical people to rise to increasingly higher levels of intellectual ability. It also produces linguistic changes that stimulate thinking. We know since antiquity that the language men speak stimulates their mind. Some experts believe that the emergence of computers and their programming languages led to changes in communication that are at least as pivotal as those that over the ages promoted philosophic thinking. At the same time, high speed computation has other aftermath: • it requires us to be precise about the representation of notions as computational objects; and • permits us to represent explicitly algorithms and heuristics for manipulating objects with which we work.
Modelling the Survival of Financial and Industrial Enterprises: Advantages, Challenges and Problems with the Internal-Ratings Base (IRB) by Dimitris N. Chorafas