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ISBN-10: 9264104224

ISBN-13: 9789264104228

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It would have been reasonable to assume that the financial sector would step into the gap with ample credit. 26 It has requested the banks to redress this situation. However, a policy of moral suasion is unlikely to be very effective now that banks are also required to be more careful in their risk assessments. And one reason for the southern banking crises was the tendency to © OECD 2003 44 OECD Economic Surveys: Italy extend loans to dubious clients under political pressure. 28 What seems to be needed is policy support to enhanced competition in the banking sector, and to the development of more non-bank forms of financing to small-scale, risky entities, such as venture capital.

The sectors mostly affected by underground activities are agriculture, retail trade, hotels and restaurants, road transport, and services to households. 32 In many respects, the causes of widespread and rising irregular employment are the same as for high unemployment,33 in particular, high fiscal pressure. 34 Other reasons are institutional factors such as: i) high administrative burden on companies’ activities; ii) inadequacy of consulting and training services © OECD 2003 The economic situation 45 Figure 12.

The authorities envisage replacing many current incentives to firms with long-term loans. This will surely help to speed the transition to a market economy, but in the short run there could be negative impacts on resource availability. It would have been reasonable to assume that the financial sector would step into the gap with ample credit. 26 It has requested the banks to redress this situation. However, a policy of moral suasion is unlikely to be very effective now that banks are also required to be more careful in their risk assessments.

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